MAHATMA GANDHI MEDIA AND RESEARCH SERVICE

Chronology of the life and work of Mahatma Gandhi (Ghandi)

1918

1918

January

1

Presided over  Ahmedabad meeting to protest against defective water supply.

1918

January

1

Gujarat Sabha wrote to  Bombay Government for exemption or relief from land revenue payments.

1918

January

4 and 5

Gandhi held talks with  representatives of Ahmedabad mill-owners and mill-workers.

1918

January

5

Champaran members of  Bihar Planters’ Association submitted memorandum against certain provisions of  Champaran Agrarian Bill.

1918

January

10

Gujarat Sabha under  Gandhi’s advice asked Kheda farmers to refrain from paying land revenue.

1918

January

12

Gandhi returned to  Motihari from Ahmedabad.

1918

January

Before 13

Offered  jobs to teachers who, having relinquished their work, sought alternative employment.

1918

January

14

Discussed Champaran  Agrarian Bill with L.F. Morshead, Commissioner of Tirhut Division.

1918

January

14

Kheda Collector in  statement criticized Gujarat Sabha’s advice to peasants to withhold land revenue,  threatened action against defaulters.

1918

January

16

Government of Bombay  issued statement that Collector of Kheda had granted revenue relief in fit cases.

1918

January

21

Gandhi wrote to Tagore  for his views on adopting Hindi as the lingua franca.

1918

January

24

Represented to Revenue  Secretary of Bihar and Orissa that material alterations in Champaran Agrarian Bill be made  only in consultation with raiyats’ representative.

1918

February

4

Arrived at Bombay,  addressed public meeting on Kheda situation.

1918

February

5

Along with Dinshaw  Wacha and G.K. Parikh called on Governor Bombay in connection with Kheda situation; later  left for Sabarmati.

1918

February

6

Reached Ashram, took  note of notices issued by Collectors and Mamlatdars.

1918

February

7

Wrote to Pratt,  Commissioner, Northern Division, protesting against harsh language of Government notices.

1918

February

8

Advised Ahmedabad  mill-hands to be reasonable in their demands and seek settlement without creating  bitterness.

1918

February

12

Discussed Kheda  situation with Collector and Commissioner.

1918

February

14

Along with Shankarlal  Banker and Vallabhbhai Patel, represented workers on Arbitration Board to decide wage  increase in lieu of Plague Bonus.

1918

February

15

Arrived at Sabarmati  Ashram; wrote to Pratt to postpone land revenue recovery till his inquiry into Kheda  situation was over.

1918

February

Before 19

Contributed foreword  to a translation of Gokhale’s speeches.

1918

February

19

Explained to  mill-hands his responsibility in regard to their trouble.

1918

February

19

The Servant of  India commenced publication on third death anniversary of Gokhale.

1918

February

20

Gandhi presided over  annual gathering of Bhagini Samaj in Bombay, spoke on women’s education; returned to  Nadiad.

1918

February

21

Motored to Kheda;  interviewed Collector.

1918

February

22

Ahmedabad mill-owners  declared general lockout.

1918

February

25

Gandhi returned to  Ahmedabad from Nadiad.

1918

February

26

Commenced issuing  leaflets on mill-hands’ struggle, also practice of addressing mill-workers daily  under babul tree on Sabarmati banks.

1918

February

27

Addressed prayer  meeting at Sabarmati Ashram; interviewed Pratt.

1918

March

1

Workers’ advisers  pledged to feed and clothe strikers in need.

1918

March

4

Bihar and Orissa  Legislative Council passed Champaran Agrarian Bill.

1918

March

7

Gandhi discussed  lockout situation with coworkers.

1918

March

10

Presided over annual  meeting of Gujarat Sabha at Ahmedabad.

1918

March

11

Interviewed Collector  of Nadiad

1918

March

12

Lockout at mills  lifted, strike by mill-workers started.

1918

March

13

Presided over two  meetings addressed by Annie Besant.

1918

March

14

Mill-workers’  reproachful remarks about their polight brought to Gandhi’s knowledge.

1918

March

15

Declared at  workers’ meeting decision to fast, to prevent strikers weakening.

1918

March

16

Returned to Sabarmati  Ashram from Anasuyabehn’s house.

1918

March

17

Appealed to Bombay  Governor for postponement of land revenue recovery.

1918

March

17

Explained significance  of fast at Ashram prayer meeting.

1918

March

18

Announced settlement  between mill-owners and workers; A.B. Dhruva appointed arbitrator.

1918

March

19

In leaflet No.17, last  of the series, Gandhi gave implications of settlement; joined mill-workers’  procession.

1918

March

21

Spoke at public  meeting addressed by C.F. Andrews, who left for Bombay to intercede with Governor on  behalf of Kheda peasants.

1918

March

Before 22

Followed  Governor’s rejection of plea for postponement of land revenue recovery, Gandhi sent  ultimatum to Pratt.

1918

March

22

Inaugurating Kheda  Satyagraha, addressed 5,000 peasants in Nadiad.

1918

March

22

Satyagrahis pledged  not to pay land revenue and to face consequences.

1918

March

22

Left for Delhi in  response to Andrew’s telegram.

1918

March

25

Met Private Secretary  to Viceroy regarding release of Ali brothers.

1918

March

27

Returned to Nadiad;  wrote to Press on his recent fast. Issued circular on Kheda situation.

1918

March

28

Issued statement to  Press on Kheda situation; left for Indore.

1918

March

29

Delivered presidential  address at Hindi Sahitya Sammelan at Indore.

1918

March

31

In letter to Press  appealed to youths in Madras Presidency to learn Hindi.

1918

April

1

Commenced Kheda tour;  Reached Kathlal.

1918

April

1

At public meeting in  Kathana characterized Government’s attitude as unjust.

1918

April

2

At Limbasi appealed to  people not to be scared of Government’s oppressive measures.

1918

April

4

Addressed meeting at  Karamsad; Rajendra Prasad and Qureshi were among those present.

1918

April

5

At Vadathal met  Collector; asked people to bear hardships courageously unmindful of consequences.

1918

April

6

Visited Uttarsanda  with Kasturba, Vallabhbhai Patel and Madhav Desai. Addressed public meeting of 2,000  farmers.

1918

April

7

Over 3,000  agriculturists heard Gandhi at Navagam.

1918

April

8

Visited Borsad,  addressed gathering of 4,000 people.

1918

April

8

Left for Ahmedabad by  train. At National Education week inauguration at Gokhale Hall in Madras, Annie Besant  read out Gandhi’s message.

1918

April

10

Gandhi met District  Magistrate, Ahmedabad; spoke at Aklacha on Kheda situation.

1918

April

11

Met Commissioner at  Ahmedabad; spoke at Vadod.

1918

April

Before 12

Issued circular  inviting Ahmedabad people to attend Commissioner’s meeting on April 12.

1918

April

12

Commissioner addressed  meeting of about 2,000 agriculturists, convened with Gandhi’s assistance, at  Ahmedabad. Gandhi spoke in order to clear misunderstanding created by Commissioner’s  speech.

1918

April

12

Addressed meeting at  Nadiad; left for Bombay.

1918

April

13

In Bombay met Revenue  Board Members regarding Kheda problem.

1918

April

15

Wrote from Nadiad  letter to The Bombay Chronicle dispelling misconceptions created by  Commissioner’s speech.

1918

April

16

Spoke at od on need to  be united in fight against Government.

1918

April

17

Issued pamphlet  elaborating points in his letter to The Bombay Chronicle on Commissioner’s  speech. Addressed Satyagrahis at Dantali and Chikhodra.

1918

April

18

Visited Ras, in Borsad  taluka, addressed agriculturists’ meeting.

1918

April

20

With Kasturba and  others visited Kadir, Ajarpara and Samantha in Anand taluka and addressed meeting of  peasants.

1918

April

22

Spoke to cultivators  at Palaj in Borsad taluka and later at Sunvav.

1918

April

23

En route to  Bombay, wrote to Kasturba: "… to be mother to Maganlal…. It is Maganlal, if  anyone, who has so trained himself that he can carry on my work after me." In Bombay  addressed meeting of citizens on Kheda Satyagraha. Tilak moved resolution deman

1918

April

24

Gandhi left Bombay for  Delhi.

1918

April

24

Bombay Government  issued Press statement of Kheda trouble.

1918

April

25

Orders issued to  Mamlatdars in Northern Division not to recover land revenue from those unable to pay.

1918

April

25

Viceroy opened War  Conference in Delhi.

1918

April

26

Government wrote to  Sir Claude Hill declining invitation to participate in War Conference or any of its  committees. Had interview with Viceroy.

1918

April

27

Agreed to participate  in War Conference after interview with Viceroy.

1918

April

27

Tilak declined  invitation to join War Conference

1918

April

28

Met Sir William  Vincent.

1918

April

29

Spoke at War  Conference supporting resolution on recruitment.

1918

April

30

Wrote to Maffey,  Private Secretary to Viceroy, offering his services as per his declaration at War  Conference.

1918

May

1

Left Delhi for Nadiad.

1918

May

3

In Bombay attended  All-India Congress Committee session; met Annie Besant.

1918

May

5

Attended Bombay  Provincial Conference and Antyaj Conference at Bijalpur.

1918

May

6

Issued statement in  reply to Bombay Government’s Press note on Kheda crisis.

1918

May

6

Spoke at Bombay  Provincial Conference supporting abolition of indenture system; left for Bombay.

1918

May

13

Spoke at Dhundakuva on  "Soul-force v. Coercion".

1918

May

14

Was indisposed at  Kathlal.

1918

May

16

Spoke at Sandesar.

1918

May

17

Left Ahmedabad for  Champaran.

1918

May

18

Informed maffey that  he was actively preparing for recruitment campaign.

1918

May

20

Arrived at Motihari.

1918

May

24

Left Motihari for  Ahmedabad via Bankipore after laying foundation stone of Ashram.

1918

May

25

Addressed large public  meeting at Patna on India’s lingua franca and self-government.

1918

May

27

Spoke at Khandhali on  significance of Satyagraha.

1918

June

2

Wrote to The Bombay  Chronicle and Sir George Barnes on anti-Indian legislation in South Africa.

1918

June

3

Addressed villagers at  Uttarsanda and Navagam.

1918

June

6

Issued manifesto to  people of Kheda signifying end of Kheda Satyagraha.

1918

June

8

Gave evidence in  District Magistrate’s Court, Nadiad, accepting responsibility for advising accused to  remove onions from wrongly forfeited fields; addressed large gathering outside Court  exhorting people to adhere to Satyagraha.

1918

June

9

Reached Bombay; wrote  to Chief Secretary, Bombay Government, declining to speak at Provincial War Conference.

1918

June

10

Attended Provincial  War Conference at Town Hall.

1918

June

11

Participated in  Servants of India Society celebration in Poona.

1918

June

15

Had interview with  Governor of Bombay.

1918

June

16

Presided over Bombay  public meeting protesting against Lord Willingdon’s provocative conduct at Provincial  War Conference.

1918

June

16

Bombay branches of the  Home Rule League passed resolution criticizing Government’s attitude.

1918

June

17

Gandhi conferred, with  close associates regarding recruitment in Nadiad.

1918

June

21

Addressed public  meeting, inaugurating recruitment campaign.

1918

June

22

Issued first leaflet  of appeal for enlistment.

1918

June

24

Spoke at Ahmedabad  protesting against Governor’s conduct at War Conference; appealed to people to enlist  in army.

1918

June

26

At Ras spoke on need  to join army.

1918

June

27

In Kheda, stressed  significance and efficacy of satyagraha at reception to released satyagrahis.

1918

June

28

Speaking at Kathlal,  at meeting to present address to Mohanlal Pandya, leader of the "Onion  Satyagraha", on his release, compared Satyagraha to kalpavriksha.

1918

June

29

Received address at  meeting to celebrate successful termination of Kheda Satyagraha.

1918

July

8

Report on  Montagu-Chelmsform Constitutional Reforms released.

1918

July

9

Gandhi wrote to Jinnah  that they should simultaneously work for enlisting in army and for amendment of  Montagu-Chelmsform Reform Scheme.

1918

July

14

Spoke at Karamsad on  recruitment.

1918

July

18

In response to  Sastri’s request, set down his views on Montagu-Chelmsform Reform Scheme.

1918

July

18

Speaking at meeting  presided over by Pratt in Nadiad, declared his reluctance to go outside Gujarat for  recruitment work, so long as his own people hung back.

1918

July

22

Issued second leaflet  of appeal for enlistment.

1918

July

22

Wrote to Govind  Malaviya that Montagu-Chelmsform Scheme was good, that its shortcomings could be removed  through agitation.

1918

July

27

The Bombay  Chronicle published obituary of Sorabji Shapurji Adajania by Gandhi.

1918

August

1

Gandhi spoke at Surat,  offering condolences to Sorabji Shapurji Adajania’s family, and appealing for  enlistment in army.

1918

August

6

Imperial Conference  resolution on India and Dominions.

1918

August

10

Gandhi wrote to  Surendranath Banerjea on Montford Reforms and differences among Moderates and Extremists.

1918

August

11

Fell seriously ill at  Nadiad.

1918

August

12

Wrote to B.G. Horniman  declining president ship of Humanitarian Conference.

1918

August

15

Wrote on implications  of Imperial Conference Resolutions.

1918

August

17

Conveyed to  Manasukhlal Raojibhai his decision not to attend Congress session and Moderates’  Conference.

1918

August

17

Wrote to Anandshankar  Dhruva regarding award in workers’ dispute.

1918

August

20

Wrote to Samarth that  Montford Scheme needed modifications.

1918

August

23

Still ill; brought  from Nadiad to Ahmedabad.

1918

August

23

Stayed at Sheth  Ambalal’s place.

1918

August

25

Explained his  differences with Congress, Moderate and Extremist leaders in letter to B. Chakravarty.

1918

August

25

Wrote to B.G. Tilak on  enlistment of recruits for war.

1918

August

29

Special Congress  session held in Bombay under president ship of Syed Hassan Imam.

1918

August

29

Gandhi addressed  letter to press on emigration of Indian to Transvaal.

1918

August

29

Wrote to C.F. Andrews  "I would not have you leave Shantiniketan."

1918

August

31

Muslim League met in  Bombay under chairmanship of Raja Saheb of Mahmudabad.

1918

September

1

Special Congress  session accepted resolution on Montford proposals.

1918

September

29

On return to  Ahmedabad, wired Bombay Government withdrawing apology given by Navajivan publishers for supposed breach of law regarding newspaper publication

1918

October

1

In Bombay presided  over public meeting at Excelsior Theatre, to celebrate 73rd birthday of Annie  Besant; opened Kalbadevi Shuddha Swadeshi Bhandar.

1918

October

1

Government of India  asked Punjab, Delhi and Madras to withdraw restrictions imposed upon Gandhi from October  15.

1918

October

2

Gandhi attended  reception at Vanita Vishram Hall of Bhagini Samaj and received purse containing Rs,20,100;  addressed meeting of Muslim students in evening.

1918

October

4

Wired Madras Governor  to expedite granting permission to Miss Faering to join Sabarmati Ashram.

1918

October

6

Madras Governor’s  Private Secretary wrote to Gandhi informing readiness to grant Esther Faering permission  to join him if she would apply in usual way.

1918

October

7

Young India was  reported to have been taken over to Ahmedabad.

1918

October

7

Gandhi received letter  informing Bombay Governor’s approval of swadeshi movement.

1918

October

8

In Baroda, spoke on  physical exercise at Manikrao’s gymnasium, witnessed demonstrations. First issue of Young  India under Gandhi’s editorship appeared.

1918

October

9

Gandhi spoke at  Maharaja Theatre, Baroda; opened swadeshi bhandar and visited brush factory and school for  untouchables; attended meeting of Stree Samaj in Nyaya Mandir; proceeded to Amreli.

1918

October

10

Opened spinning-wheel  class in Amreli.

1918

October

11

Reached Bhavnagar at  night.

1918

October

12

Taken in procession,  was presented with address by Cooth Merchants’ Association; spoke on swadeshi;  visited school for untouchables; advocated spinning in spare time at women’s meeting;  left for Ahmedabad.

1918

October

13

Presided over farewell  to Anandshankar Dhruva at Gujarat College; later spoke to College students at meeting  presided over by Robertson, Principal.

1918

October

15

Restrictions imposed  on April 9, 1919, prohibiting Gandhi’s entry into Punjab, were removed. Bombay High  Court warned satyagrahi lawyers who took Satyagraha pledge.

1918

October

17

Khilafat Day observed  all over India.

1918

October

18

Registrar, High Court,  Bombay, summoned Gandhi to attend His Lordship’s on October 20 to explain action in  publishing private letter of Ahmedabad District Judge.

1918

October

20

Gandhi telegraphed  Registrar expressing his inability to attend Court on October 20, owing to Punjab tour.

1918

October

22

Sent explanation to  Registrar from Sabarmati Ashram regarding publication of Ahmedabad District Judge’s  private letter.

1918

October

22

Informed Madras  Governor of Esther Faering’s arrival at Ashram.

1918

October

22

Participated in  function to felicitate Dhruva.

1918

October

22

Left Ahmedabad for  Lahore via Baroda.

1918

October

24

Lahore citizens  accorded warm reception to Gandhi at station.

1918

October

24

Government of India,  Home Department, informed Bombay Government, Judicial Department, that it had no intention  to restrict Gandhi’s movements.

1918

October

27

Gandhi had interview  with Lt.Governor Sir Edward Maclagan and Deputy Commissioner.

1918

October

28

Addressed students at  Pandit Rambhuj Dutt Choudhri’s house.

1918

October

28

Left for Delhi with  C.F. Andrews to attend Punjab Inquiry Committee meeting.

1918

October

28

Government of Indian  informed Chief Secretary, Madras State, of withdrawal of restrictions imposed upon Gandhi  with effect from October 5, 1919, and asked latter to do likewise.

1918

October

29

Gandhi attended Punjab  Inquiry Committee meeting; met Lord Hunter and other officials.

1918

October

29

Addressed public  meeting under Swami Shraddhanand’s chairmanship.

1918

October

31

Wired Sabarmati Ashram  not to have "peace celebrations" on December 13 and 14 if Khilafat question  remained unsettled.

1918

October

31

Bombay High Court  Registrar declared Gandhi’s explanation to be unsatisfactory and demanded publication  of apology.

1918

November

1

Gandhi gave interview  to Associated Press of India on South African Commission.

1918

November

1

Attended public  meeting of Delhi citizens at Pataudi House, but meeting abandoned due to disorder.

1918

November

2

Delhi martyrs meeting  was resumed. Gandhi addressed gathering.

1918

November

3

First open session of  Punjab Inquiry Committee convened.

1918

November

3

Gandhi was reported  taking evidence in martial law cases.

1918

November

4

At Amritsar Golden  Temple, was presented with a turban; spoke on swadeshi at women’s meeting; visited  Jallianwala Bagh and Khalsa College. Left for Lahor with Andrews.

1918

November

7

Telegraphed Registrar,  High Court, Bombay for leave till receipt of counsel’s opinion.

1918

November

11

Held conference with  Madan Mohan Malaviya, Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das and Andrews.

1918

November

11

Malaviya was refused  permission to visit Harkishen Lal in jail.

1918

November

11

Disorders Inquiry  Committee arrived at Lahore.

1918

November

15

Gandhi spoke at  meeting to bid farewell to Andrews who was proceeding to South Africa.

1918

November

20

Visited Gujranwala;  addressed public meeting at Gurukul.

1918

November

21

Recorded statements  from witnesses at Gujranwala; addressed women’s meeting.

1918

November

23

Spoke at Khilafat  Conference at Delhi, attended exclusively by Muslims.

1918

November

23

M.A. Jinnah regretted  inability to attend.

1918

November

24

Gandhi presided over  joint Hindu-Muslim session of Khilafat Congress; spoke in Hindi. Resolution declared  Indians’ unwillingness to participate in peace celebration until Khilafat question  was settled.

1918

November

24

Advisory committee  against peace celebrations formed; one piece of Gandhi auctioned for Rs.501.

1918

November

26

Gandhi visited and  spoke at Nizamabad and Kasur.

1918

November

29

Visited Akalgarh.

1918

November

30

Visited Ramnagar.

1918

December

1

Recorded statements at  Hafizabad.

1918

December

2

Addressed Hafizabad  students’ and women’s meetings.

1918

December

3

Reached Sangla Hill in  evening, collected evidence; left for Lahore.

1918

December

3

Indian Reforms Bill  discussed in House of Commons.

1918

December

5

In Sheikhupura, Gandhi  addressed meeting on Hindu-Muslim unity.

1918

December

5

Indian Reforms Bill  passed third reading in house of commons.

1918

December

6

Gandhi left  Sheikhupura for Chuharkana, spoke on need for discipline when detained by crowd at railway  station.

1918

December

7

Visited Lyallpur in  evening, received statements.

1918

December

8

Addressed meeting of  women at noon and public meeting in evening.

1918

December

8

Indian Reforms Bill  had first reading in House of Lords.

1918

December

9

Gandhi arrived in  Lahore.

1918

December

11

Spoke at celebration  of Sabha Mandal.

1918

December

11

Wrote to Registrar,  High Court, Bombay that he "could not conscientiously offer any apology".

1918

December

11

Registrar’s  application suo moto for "a rule nisi calling upon Messrs Gandhi and  Desai to show cause why they should not be committed or otherwise dealt with according to  law for contempt of court" granted.

1918

December

24

Reforms Bill received  Royal assent; Royal Proclamation announcing clemency to political prisoners issued.

1918

December

28

At Amritsar, Gandhi  dissolved All-India-Humanitarian Conference on account of disorder.

1918

December

29

Attended Indian  National Congress session; moved resolution regarding South African Indians’  hardships. Attended All-India Muslim League session.

1918

December

30

Moved resolution at  Indian National Congress session on Punjab and Gujarat disturbances.

1918

December

31

Attended Congress  session.