MAHATMA GANDHI MEDIA AND RESEARCH SERVICE

Chronology of the life and work of Mahatma Gandhi (Ghandi)

1917

1917

January

2

Gandhi returned to  Ahmedabad from Lucknow after Congress session.

1917

January

Before 14

Explained, in  statement, how Lionel Curtis’s letter to Secretary of "Round Table" was  discovered.

1917

January

17

In letter to Narandas  Gandhi, conveyed his resolution to set up a national school.

1917

January

After 18

Drew up prospectus of  the school.

1917

February

4

Presided over  anti-indenture meeting at Ahmedabad. C.F. Andrews and H.S.L. Polak also spoke.

1917

February

7

While opening session  of Imperial legislative Council, Viceroy explained his refusal to allow Pandit  Malaviya’s notice to move Bill to abolish indentured emigration entirely.

1917

February

After 7

In statement, Gandhi  thanked Viceroy for his assurance on indentured labor.

1917

February

9

At Bombay public  meeting held at Excelsior Theater under president ship of Sir Jamsetji jeejibhoy, spoke in  support of resolution demanding immediate abolition of indenture system.

1917

February

11

Spoke at  anti-indenture meeting held under auspices of Home rule League, Bombay.

1917

February

19

Arrived in Godhra and  presided over public meeting on anniversary of Gokhale’s death.

1917

February

26

At Surat meeting,  urged stoppage of recruitment of indentured labor.

1917

March

2

Spoke at Home Rule  League headquarters, Karachi, on passive resistance and austerity.

1917

March

2

Visited Hardevi Bai  Girls’ School and met Cutchhi and Gujarati communities at Parsi Theater.

1917

March

2

At public meeting,  told people to join Defense Forces in "overwhelming numbers". Sir S.P. Sinha  presided.

1917

March

2

At public meeting in  Karachi, Gandhi insisted on abolition of indenture system by May 31, 1917.

1917

March

6

Reached Calcutta at  Maharaja of Cassimbazar’s invitation.

1917

March

6

Declared at public  meeting in Town hall that India could not tolerate indentured emigration "a minute  longer than the 21st May".

1917

March

12

Governor-general  -in-Council’s decision prohibiting labor emigration from India under Defense of  India Act gazetted.

1917

April

8

Gandhi attended  A.I.C.C. meeting at Calcutta which decided to send eight-member deputation to England for  Congress work.

1917

April

10

With Rajkumar Shukla  reached Patna on way to Champaran. Stayed with Maszhar-ul-Haw.

1917

April

10

Welcomed by J.B.  Kripalani and others on arrival at Muzaffarpur, and spent night at students’ hostel.

1917

April

11

Met and explained  mission to James Wilson, Secretary, Bihar Planters’ Association.

1917

April

11

In evening, met vakils  of Muzaffarpur.

1917

April

11

In a rejoinder to  Ramsay MacDonald regarding report of Public Services Commission, stated, Gokhale would  have drawn up "a minority report in conjunction with Mr. Abdul Rahim."

1917

April

12

Wrote letter seeking  interview with L.F. Morshead, Commissioner of tirhut Division and cooperation of local  administration in his mission.

1917

April

13

Met L.F. Morshead at  Muzaffarpur. Later, sent him letter restating scope of mission and enclosing statement of  local leaders.

1917

April

15

In letter to Maganlal  Gandhi, described situation in Champaran to be "worse than in Fiji and Natal."

1917

April

15

Arrived in Motihari.

1917

April

16

Left to Jassauli in  Champaran; served with notice to leave district by first available train. Returned to  Motihari. Conveyed decision to disobey the order in letter to W.B. Heycock, District  Magistrate. Conveyed decision to P.S. to Viceroy to return Ka

1917

April

18

Appeared in District  Magistrate’s Court, Motihari, and read out statement explaining disobedience of  order. Case postponed till April 21.

1917

April

19

Executive Committee  of Bihar Provincial Association resolved to send protest to Viceroy and Lt.-Governor  regarding order against Gandhi.

1917

April

20

Gandhi issued orders  for withdrawal of proceedings against Gandhi and sent instructions to local officials to  give him facilities during investigation.

1917

April

21

Gandhi wired thanks to  Lt.-Governor, Bihar and Orissa, for withdrawal of proceedings, issued press statement. Met  Heycock.

1917

April

22

Left Motihari for  Bettiah.

1917

April

23

Had interview with  Sub-divisional Officer, Bettiah.

1917

April

27

J.T. Whitty, Manager,  Bettiah Raj, wrote to Morshead, protesting against inquiry by Gandhi and suggested  appointment of commission by Government.

1917

April

28

Herbert Cox, Honorary  Secretary, Bihar Planters’ Association, wrote to Morshead protesting against inquiry  by Gandhi.

1917

April

28

In letter to S.D.O.,  Bettiah, Gandhi denied charge of interference with the former’s authority.

1917

April

28

Imperial War  Conference held in London. Sir S.P. Sinha, Maharaja of Bikaner and Sir James Meston  represented India. Secretary of State announced decision regarding India’s  representation at future Imperial Conference.

1917

May

1

Morshead wrote to  Chief Secretary, Bihar and Orissa, recommending appointment of inquiry commission.

1917

May

1

Gandhi went to  Motihari.

1917

May

1

Olaha outwork of  turkaulia concern in Champaran destroyed by fire.

1917

May

2

Gandhi contradicted  newspaper report that withdrawal of case against Gandhi was ordered by Government of  India.

1917

May

5

Directors of Bihar  Planters’ Association passed resolution recording emphatic protest against manner of  Gandhi’s enquiry.

1917

May

9

Gandhi was warmly  welcomed by people on arrival in Patna from Champaran.

1917

May

9

W. Maude, Member of  Executive Council, met Morshead, Heycock, Lewis and Whitty.

1917

May

10

Gandhi met Maude at  Patna and agreed to submit preliminary report of his enquiry.

1917

May

13

Wrote report on  conditions of Champaran riots.

1917

May

14

Sent copies of report  to Maude, McPherson, Morshead and Heycock.

1917

May

17

India Home Rule League  held first annual Conference at Nasik under president ship of Joseph Baptista.

1917

May

17

Gandhi’s  contradiction of A.P.I. report on his mission and Olaha fire and correspondence with  Heycock published.

1917

May

18

Kutcherry building of Dhokraha outwork of Loheria factory was burnt down.

1917

May

19

Gandhi wrote to  Manager of Loheria concern regarding oppression of raiyats.

1917

May

20

In letter to Home  Member, Government of India, Lt.-Governor detailed action to be taken against Gandhi.

1917

May

20

Bihar Planters’  Association wrote to Morshead tracing acts of incendiaries to Gandhi’s mission.

1917

May

20

Gandhi wrote to  Heycock regarding Belwa and Dhokraha concerns and complained of intimidation by planters.

1917

May

21

McPherson sought  Government of India’s approval to remove Gandhi and his associates from Champaran  under Defense of India Rules.

1917

May

21

Whitty wrote to Maude  that Gandhi had "become the center of agitation against the European."

1917

May

22

Gandhi sent to Heycock  another statement about Dhokraha fire.

1917

May

22

In letter to Morshead,  Heycock attributed Dhokraha fire to Gandhi’s visit and described his inquiry as  "dangerous to the peace of the district."

1917

May

24

Viceroyheld  consultations with his Council. Later, Home Department of Government of India wired to  McPherson suggesting appointment of a "strong Committee".

1917

May

26

In letter to Esther  Faering, Gandhi described condition of Champaran raiyats as "no better than  that of slaves".

1917

May

27

Lt.-Governor-in-Council  invited Gandhi for interview at ranchi on June 4.

1917

May

28

In communication to  Government of India, McPherson proposed Gandhi’s name as raiyats’ representative  on the proposed Committee.

1917

May

29

In Press statement,  Gandhi said any enquiry covering definite issues would meet existing situation if known  wrongs were immediately redressed.

1917

May

30

In letter to  Mcpherson, Gandhi agreed to meet Lt.-Governor and complained against planters’  obstruction in his enquiry.

1917

May

30

Interdepartmental  Conference held in London to discuss a new assisted system of emigration to British  Guiana, Trinidad, Jamaica and Fiji.

1917

June

1

Planters sent  representation to Government.

1917

June

2

Home Department,  Government of India, wrote to Bihar Government that enquiry committee be appointed and  investigation started within a month.

1917

June

2

Gandhiji reached Patna. Met Pandit Malaviya, Rajendra Prasad and others and left  for Ranchi.

1917

June

4

Gandhiji met  Lt.-Governor at Ranchi.

1917

June

4

In letter to Maharaja of Darbhangra (Member, Executive Council), communicated his  terms for enquiry.

1917

June

5

Held discussions with  Lt.-Governor and saw members of Executive Council.

1917

June

5

Left for Patna.

1917

June

7

Arrived in Patna.  Conveyed acceptance of nomination to Enquiry Committee after consulting Pandit Malaviya.

1917

June

8

Secretary, European  Association, urged removal of Gandhiji from Champaran.

1917

June

8

Gandhiji returned to Bettiah.

1917

June

10

Government resolution  announced terms and composition of Champaran Agrarian Enquiry Committee.

1917

June

10

Gandhiji wrote to McPherson that taking of statements at Bettiah had been stopped.

1917

June

12

Went to Motihari.  Taking of statements stopped.

1917

June

14

Honorary Secretary,  Bihar Planters' Association, wrote to McPherson protesting against Gandhiji's inclusion in  the Committee.

1917

June

16

Madras Government  issued internment order on Mrs. Besant, G. S. Arundale and B. P. Wadia.

1917

June

17

Gandhiji left Bettiah  for Ahmedabad.

1917

June

28

Returned to Motihari  from Ahmedabad with Dr. Deva, Secretary, Servants of India Society.

1917

June

29

In letter to Heycock,  proposed sending of volunteers and Dr. Deva for assistance to villagers.

1917

June

30

Death of Dadabhai  Naoroji.

1917

June

30

In letter to The Pioneer, Gandhiji refuted criticism of his dress.

1917

June

30

Wrote to J. B. Petit about internment of Mrs. Besant and others, urging vigorous  propaganda in villages despite prohibition.

1917

July

30

Bihar Government  issued notice regarding commencement of enquiry by middle of July.

1917

July

On or after 3

Gandhiji in private  circular letter from Motihari detailed expenses and activities of Satyagraha Ashram and  appealed for help.

1917

July

7

Writing to P. S. to  Viceroy from Patna, Gandhiji called internment of Mrs. Besant "a big blunder".

1917

July

9

Raja Kirtyanand Singh  appointed member of Champaran Committee in place of Raja Harihar Prasad Narayan Singh who  resigned due to ill-health.

1917

July

11

Champaran Committee  held preliminary meeting to decide procedure and extent of enquiry.

1917

July

12

In House of Commons,  E. S. Montagu, ex-Under Secretary of State for India, in speech on Mesopotamian Commission  Report, described Government of India as "too wooden, too iron, too inelastic, too  anti-diluvian to be of any use for modern purposes. . . .

1917

July

17

E. S. Montague  appointed Secretary of State for India. Public sittings of Champaran Committee commenced  at Bettiah.

1917

July

19

Champaran Committee  met at Bettiah.

1917

July

25

Gandhiji wrote to  Secretary, Passengers' Grievances Committee, Rangoon, regarding lack of attention to deck  passengers of British India Steam Navigation Company. Bhiar Planters' Association  submitted written statement to Champaran Committee.

1917

July

26

Champaran Committee  met at Motihari and examined W. S. Irwin, Manager of Motihari Ltd.

1917

July

28

Congress Committee and  Muslim League Reform Council held joint conference at Bombay.

1917

July

29

Gandhiji recorded  confidential note on sharahbeshi for circulation among Champaran Committee  mebers.

1917

August

29

In a manifesto,  prominent Indian leaders, including Congressmen, opposed passive resistance in view of  Montagu's proposed visit.

1917

August

8

Champaran Committee  men at Bettiah. Gandhiji's suggestion regarding abwab agreed to.

1917

August

10

Meeting of Champaran  Committee agreed on abolition of tinkathia.

1917

August

11

Gandhiji discussed sharahbeshi and made proposals at Champaran Committee meeting.

1917

August

12

Champaran Committee  held discussions with planters.

1917

August

13

Gandhiji wrote to  Chairman, Champaran Committee, and sharahbeshi and tinkathia and offered  terms of compromise with planters.

1917

August

14

Champaran Committee  discussed Gandhiji's suggestions and adjourned.

1917

August

15

Gandhiji complained to  Manager, Pipra Indigo Concern, against molestation of raiyats.

1917

August

16

Reached Patna on way  to Ahmedabad, leaving behind volunteer camps at Bettiah and motihari to continue welfare  work.

1917

August

20

In House of Commons,  E. S. Montague declared British Government's policy of "increasing association of  Indians in every branch of the administration".

1917

August

24

Gandhiji addressed  meeting of business men held in Ahmedabad to demand  release of Mrs. Besnt and  coworkers.

1917

August

31

Told Mahadev Desai,  "I have got in you the man I wanted" and asked him to join him.

1917

September

31

In article entitled  "Indian Colonial Emigration" in Indian Review, discussed implications  of report of Interdepartmental Conference held in London.

1917

September

1

Government of India  issued resolution embodying report of Interdepartmental Conference held in London  regarding emigration to Colonies.

1917

September

1

Letter to Shankarlal Banker on satyagraha.

1917

September

2

Gadhiji took part in  Bombay Provincial Congress Committee meeting held to consider passive resistance campaign  against coercive measures of Government.

1917

September

4

Returned to Ahmedabad  for Madras.

1917

September

11

Left Ahmedabad for  Madras.

1917

September

Before 13

Drafted petition on  behalf of Gujarat Sabha for presentation to Montague.

1917

September

17

Mrs. Besant, Wadia and  Arundale released, Gandhiji arrived in Poona.

1917

September

17

Contributed to Provincial Cooperative Conference paper on "Moral Basis of  Cooperation".

1917

September

18

Left Poona for Ranchi.

1917

September

21

In Imperial  Legislative Council, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya moved resolution urging holding of I.C.S.  examination in India and England simultaneously.

1917

September

22

Gandhiji reached  Ranchi.

1917

September

23

In interview with  Lt.-Governor at Ranchi, discussed sharahbeshi and work of volunteers in  Champaran.

1917

September

24 - 28

Champaran Committee  met in second and last session at Ranchi, Gandhiji participating.

1917

September

25

Gandhiji wrote letter  to Press on third class traveling on railways.

1917

September

27

Wrote foreword to G.  A. Natesan's booklet, What India Wants Autonomy within the Empire.

1917

September

29

Gandhiji signed  agreement with leading planters at Ranchi regarding reduction of sharahbeshi.

1917

October

2

Mrs. Besant unveiled  portrait of Gandhiji in Gokhale Hall, Madras, on his birthday.

1917

October

3

Gandhiji along with  other members of Champaran Committee signed the report.

1917

October

4

Wrote to Lt.-Governor  regarding publication in the regional language of Government's resolution on Committee's  report.

1917

October

5

Reached Patna from  Ranchi and left for Allahabad at attend Congress Committee meeting.

1917

October

6

A.I.C.C. and Council  of Muslim League met in joint session at Allahabad and decided to send all-India  deputation to Viceroy and Secretary of State in support of Congress-League scheme.

1917

October

6

Champaran Committee's report was accepted by Lt.-Governor-in-Council.

1917

October

About 9

Gandhi laid foundation  stone for goshala in Bettiah.

1917

October

15

Presided over Bihar  Students’ Conference at Bhagalpur.

1917

October

18

Government of Bihar  and Orissa passed resolution on Champaran Agrarian Enquiry Committee Report which  acknowledged "with much pleasure the good sense and moderation shown by Mr.Gandhi,  who represented the cause of the tenants on the Committee".

1917

October

19

Gandhi, spoke at  reception by merchants at Broach.

1917

October

20

Presided over Second  Gujarat Educational Conference.

1917

October

21

In concluding address  at Conference expressed desire to lay down life in country’s service.

1917

October

21

Proposed vote of  thanks at Humanitarian League.

1917

October

26

All-India deputation,  including Gandhi, Motilal Nehru, Tilak, Jinnah and Sapru, waited on Chelmsford and  Montagu.

1917

November

2

Gandhi presided over  meeting at Godhra to protest against hardships of third-class railway passengers.

1917

November

3

Presided over First  Gujarat Political Conference at Godhra.

1917

November

4

Announced at Political  Conference intimation of Government’s decision to remove customs levy at Viramgam.

1917

November

5

In concluding speech  at Conference, exhorted participants to continue propaganda work and obtain signatures on  petition to Montagu.

1917

November

5

Presided over Dhed  community meeting.

1917

November

8

Arrived at Motihari at  night.

1917

November

9

Had interview in the  morning with J.L. Merriman, District Magistrate.

1917

November

11

Addressed public  meeting at Dharamshala in Muzaffarpur; appealed for support to Congress-League  recommendations.

1917

November

11

In the evening  attended Conference of Hindu and Mahomedan leaders; left for Motihari, at 9 p.m.

1917

November

12

Declared open Gokhale  Library at Umreth.

1917

November

12

J.M. Wilson, Secretary  of Bihar Planter’s Association , published in The Statesman opinion of  planters’ legal adviser.

1917

November

14

Gandhi opened school  in Bharharwa near Doka, in Champaran; returned to Bettiah.

1917

November

15

Had interview with  J.T. Whitty, Manager of Bettiah Raj.

1917

November

16

Visited Koeri; went to  Amolwa Station, inquired into case of police excesses on laborers.

1917

November

20

Opened school at  Bhitiharwa, near Shrirampur, about two miles from Amolwa.

1917

November

22

Informed J.L. Merriman  of his impending absence from Champaran for over a fortnight and Babu Brijkishore Prasad  representing him.

1917

November

26

Had interview with  Chelmsford and Montagu at Delhi.

1917

November

27

Had interview with  Tilak, Montagu.

1917

November

28

Went to Aligarh; spoke  on Hindu-Muslim unity at the Lyall Library Grounds; later, addressed Aligarh College  students on "Truth and Thrift".

1917

November

28

Called on Khwaja Abdul  Majid. Left at night for Calcutta by train.

1917

November

29

Champaran Bill  introduced in Council, referred to Select Committee.

1917

December

4 and 5

Gandhi had discussion  with Ahmedabad mill-owners about workers’ wages.

1917

December

6

Spoke (the text of  this speech is not available) on "Some Problems of Gujarat" at Dasa Khadayata  Wadi in Nadiad.

1917

December

6

Presided over  Committee meetings of First Gujarat Political Conference and Gujarat Stree Kelavani  Mandal.

1917

December

10

Appointment of Rowlatt  Committee announced. Gandhi in letter to Albert West preferred stopping Indian Opinion to  its removal from Phoenix to the city - Durban.

1917

December

16

Addressed large public  meeting; visited Hindu Orphanage before leaving Nadiad.

1917

December

19

Communicated views on  Champaran Agrarian Bill to Revenue Secretary, Bihar and Orissa Government.

1917

December

26

Attended 32nd Indian National Congress at Calcutta.

1917

December

27

Announced adjournment  of All-India Social Service Conference in Calcutta.

1917

December

29

Moved resolution at  Congress session concerning disabilities of Indians in South Africa.

1917

December

30

Proposed, at Indian  Social Conference, resolution regarding education and uplift of depressed classes.

1917

December

30

Spoke at First Bengal  Agriculturists’ Conference; also at All-India National Language Conference.

1917

December

31

Addressed session of  All-India Muslim League in Calcutta; also meeting held under auspices of Bengal and Bombay  Humanitarian League at University Institute.

1917

December

31

Delivered presidential  address at All-India Social Service Conference.