For a World of Peace and Nonviolence!

CHRONOLOGY 1914

1914

January

1

Gandhi wrote to Senator Campbell defending movement, denying passive resistance was connected with  violence. Sir Benjamin Robertson left Bombay en route for South Africa.

1914

January

2

C.F. Andrews and W.W.Pearson arrived in Durban. Gandhi spoke at reception.

1914

January

2

Cabled Gokhale about  Andrew’s arrival, effort for nominating impartial European on Commission.

1914

January

3

In cable to Gokhale, asked for Harilal’s return to join passive resistance.

1914

January

4

Addressed Indian  hawkers’ Association reception in honor of Andrews and Pearson.

1914

January

4

Gave interview to  Reuter.

1914

January

5

Hurbatsingh,  70-year-old satyagrahi serving 3 months’ sentence died of pneumonia in Volksrust  Gaol.

1914

January

7

Gandhi, Andrews, left  for Pretoria for interview with Smuts.

1914

January

Before 8

Several Indians killed  in police firing at Blackburn Estates.

1914

January

8

Gandhi sought  interview with Smuts.

1914

January

9

Gandhi, Andrews  arrived in Pretoria; in interview to Pretoria News, assured that passive resisters  would not embarrass Government till railway strike was settled.

1914

January

11

Benjamin Robertson  arrived in Durban.

1914

January

12

Mrs. Sheikh Mehtab and  her mother, Haifa Bibi, released from Maritzburg Goal.

1914

January

13

Gandhi had brief  interview with Smuts, who asked him to await Robertson’s arrival in Pretoria; Andrews  met Governor-general Gladstone.

1914

January

16

Gandhi had interview with Smuts; presented proposals.

1914

January

20

Several women  satyagrahis released from Durban Central goal.

1914

January

Before 21

Gandhi received  written statement from Pretoria Muslims and Hindus repudiating allegation of split on  issue of passive resistance.

1914

January

21

Gandhi met Benjamin Robertson; wrote to Ministry of Interior that passive resistance would not be revived or  the Commission’s work otherwise hampered.

1914

January

22

Andrews saw Smuts provisional settlement between Gandhi and Smuts arrived at, Government accepting principle  of consultation with Indians. Gandhi left Pretoria for Phoenix; passive resistance  suspended.

1914

January

23

Arrived in  Johannesburg; interviewed by Rand Daily Mail; cabled Gokhale reporting provisional  settlement; set up office at 15, Anderson Street, Johannesburg; several passive resisters  released from Durban Goal.

1914

January

25

Gandhi explained implications of settlement at Durban mass meeting which endorsed it.

1914

January

25

Attended reception to  Andrews by Indian goldsmiths in Durban.

1914

January

26

Indian Inquiry  Commission held first sitting in Durban.

1914

January

28

Reuter reported NIC  meeting decision to tender evidence before Inquiry Commission.

1914

January

28

Several Indian  Associations cabled Gokhale approval of ‘Provisional Settlement’.

1914

January

29

Benjamin Robertson  testified before Commission.

1914

January

30

Gandhi, Andrews  jointly cabled Gokhale that NIC meeting of January 28 had been engineered and was of no  significance.

1914

January

30

Andrews, Manilal  Gandhi arrived at Pietermaritzburg.

1914

January

31

India mass meeting at  Maritzburg honored Andrews, endorsed Gandhi-Smuts agreement.

1914

February

4

Robertson visited  Phoenix settlement.

1914

February

6

Gandhi was informed of  Government’s decision to release natal and Transvaal passive resistance prisoners.

1914

February

7

India women’s  Sabha inaugurated in Durban.; Kasturba, Mrs.Polak elected patrons.

1914

February

7

Inquiry Commission  concluded sitting in Natal.

1914

February

8

Indian meeting in  Stanger supported Gandhi-Smuts agreement.

1914

February

9

HIS (Hamidia Islamic  Society, Johannesburg) conveyed to Robertson resolution demanding settlement of marriage  question according to Mahomedan religion.

1914

February

12

Andrews addressed  public meeting on Tagore at Cliti hall, Cape Town.

1914

February

17

Gokhale left for  England.

1914

February

20

Andrews addressed  University students at Cape Town.

1914

February

21

Gandhi spoke at  farewell to Andrews, who later sailed for England.

1914

February

22

Miss Valliamma  Moonsamy Moodaliar, a passive resister, died of illness contracted in Maritzburg Goal.

1914

February

24

Madras league resolved  to depute Gokhale, Srinivasa Sastri and others to present South Africa Indians case in  England.

1914

February

26

Smuts requested Gandhi  to postpone meeting him till Inquiry Commission’s report was out.

1914

February

27

Gandhi wrote to  Gokhale from Cape Town expressing desire to return to India in case of settlement, observe  compact of silence for a year and learn at Gokhale’s feet.

1914

March

2

In letter to Harilal,  Gandhi spoke of ailing Kasturba as "hanging between life and death".

1914

March

4

Wrote to Robertson  about relief to Indians in regard to specific grievances.

1914

March

7

Solomon  Commission’s report submitted to Government.

1914

March

9

Lakshmidas Gandhi  passed away at Porbundar.

1914

March

11

Gandhi wrote to  Chhaganlal Gandhi how to handle family matters in case of his death. Speaking in the  Senate, Smuts observed that Gandhi was allowed to function in South Africa as he did,  "because he never advocated methods of violence to overthrow the

1914

March

13

In letter to Andrews,  Gandhi wrote "Mrs. Gandhi was near death’s door last week. I have therefore  done hardly anything else save nursing her during the last 10 days.

1914

March

16

Bombay Committee for  South Africa cabled Gandhi for views on Reuter’s forecast about Commission’s  recommendations, requested him not to commit himself before consulting Committee.

1914

March

17

Commission’s  Report presented to Parliament.

1914

March

17

Reoberson left Cape  Town for Delagoa Bay en route to India. Viceroy addressed Imperial Legislative  Council on subject of Inquiry Commission.

1914

March

19

Bombay Committee for  South Africa expressed satisfaction over Commissi9on’s recommendations, hoped passive  resistance would not be revived.

1914

March

22

Transvaal Muslim  meeting condemned Solomon Commission’s recommendations on question of Muslim  marriage; HIS cabled SSI, others, recommendations violated religion.

1914

March

23

Smuts announced in  Assembly that Government was considering Commission’s report and introducing  necessary legislation that session.

1914

March

24

Union Government  Gazette published Proclamation requiring publication of banns for Mohammedan and  Hebrew marriages.

1914

March

25

Cape Indians held  reception for Kasturba Gandhi, Imam Abdul Kadir Bawazeer, at Hindu Sabha; Gandhi was  presented with set of Cape Town Statutes, also contributions to passive resistance fund.  Gandhi analyzed in Indian Opinion recommendations of the Com

1914

March

26

Accompanied by  Kasturba and Imam Bawazeer, left Cape Town for Phoenix.

1914

March

30

Arrived at Phoenix.  Mr. And Mrs. Polak given farewell by Durban Indian Women’s Association.

1914

April

1

In letter to Gokhale,  Gandhi expressed doubt about Kasturba’s survival. Andrews left England for  Marseilles en route to India.

1914

April

8

Gandhi urged Ministry  of Interior to stop deductions for £ 3 tax indentured labourers’ wages, in view of  Commission’s recommendations.

1914

April

22

Telegraphed Ministry  to order suspension of forcible tax collections. Smuts replied stating that suspension of  prosecutions for tax recommended to Minister of Justice.

1914

May

Before 6

Urged Ministry not to  demand photos from Indian women seeking entry to the Transvaal, but accept local proof.

1914

May

6

Wrote to Gokhale  asking whether he and Kasturba should meet him in London en route to India, in case  of final settlement.

1914

May

16

Gladstone forwarded  SSC text of Indians’ Relief Bill.

1914

May

19

Gandhi inquired of  Ministry date of introduction of Bill.

1914

May

20

Ministry informed  Gandhi interview with Smuts possible for discussing Bill.

1914

May

22

Gandhi left Phoenix  for Cape Town to meet Smuts.

1914

May

23

Interviewed by The  Transvaal Leader at Johannesburg.

1914

May

27

Met Secretary of  Interior, received copy of draft Bill.

1914

May

28

Indians’ Relief  Bill published; Polak, interviewed by Reuter at Johannesburg, mentioned Gandhi’s  cable that Bill appeared satisfactory.

1914

May

29

Polak wrote to The  Star anticipating end of struggle if administrative measures taken to implement Bill.

1914

June

1

Smuts notified  Assembly of introduction of Bill next day.

1914

June

2

Ficksburg Indian  community wired Gandhi demanding access to Fee State.

1914

June

5

Gandhi wrote to  Gokhale that he would leave for India by mid-July in event of satisfactory settlement and  termination of struggle.

1914

June

8

Bill read second time.  Anjuman Islam wired Gandhi to press for acceptance of thumbprints for identification.

1914

June

9

Gandhi raised with  Gorges question of examination by immigration authorities of applicants seeking entry into  Natal.

1914

June

11

Randeree wired Gandhi  that Bill vested in Government authority to declare 74,000 indentured Indians prohibited  immigrants. Gandhi sought from Gorges reassurance as to interpretation of Bill.

1914

June

15

Rustomjee wired Gandhi  for clarification of position of indentured Indians under Bill.

1914

June

17

Bill read third time,  referred to Senate. In India, Lokamanya Tilak released after 6 years’ exile in Burma.

1914

June

18

First reading of Bill  in Senate.

1914

June

19

Second reading of bill  in Senate.

1914

June

20

Gandhi wrote to  Campbell denying Indian opposition to Bill, refused to believe Bill had effect of making  Indians prohibited immigrants. Rustomjee drew Gandhi’s attention to Mercury’s interpretation of Bill as adverse to indentured Indians.

1914

June

21

Sir David Hunter  passed away at Edinburgh.

1914

June

22

Gorges informed Gandhi  that Government had no intention to apply Bill adversely to indentured Indians.

1914

June

After 22

Gandhi, in open  letter, asserted he would fight any injustice from Bill.

1914

June

24

Gorges invited Gandhi  for discussions.

1914

June

26

Relief Bill read third  time in Senate.

1914

June

27

Gandhi had 2 hour  interview with Smuts at Cape Town. Addressed European meeting held to felicitate him on  passage of Bill.

1914

June

30

Wrote to Gorges that  "passing of Indians’ Relief Bill …. Finally closed the passive resistance  struggle which commenced in September 1906".

1914

July

1

Accompanied by  Kallenbach and Kasturba, left Cape for Phoenix; broke journey at Kimberley. Relief Act  received Governor-General’s assent; latter cabled Colonial Office that agreement had  been reached on "outstanding administrative points".

1914

July

1

New Zealand introduced  Bill imposing language test to obstruct Asiatic entry.

1914

July

5

Gandhi spoke at Durban  reception; stated at farewell banquet that Relief Act was act of justice, urgently needed  in Imperial interest.

1914

July

8

Was presented with  addresses at farewell meeting in Town Hall, Durban.

1914

July

9

Gandhi, Kasturba  honored by Gujaratis, Dheds; addressed sports’ meet.

1914

July

10

Gandhi, addressed  farewell gathering at Asiatic Location, Pretoria.

1914

July

11

Took leave of Phoenix  Settlement.

1914

July

12

Addressed farewell  meeting at Verulam; left for Johannesburg.

1914

July

13

Arrived at  Johannesburg in evening; taken in procession, addressed mass meeting at Gaiety Theater.

1914

July

14

Given farewell banquet  at Masonic Hall, Johannesburg; C.K. T. Naidoo presented him four sons for national  service. Gandhi met European Committee,l discussed Provisional Settlement. Interviewed by The  Transvaal leader. Section of NIC, HIS protested to M

1914

July

Before 15

Gandhi addressed  valedictory letter to South Africa Indians.

1914

July

15

Paid tributes to  Valliamma, Nagappen, passive resisters at memorial unveiling ceremony at Bloemfontein  Cemetery.

1914

July

15

Addressed meeting of  TIWA, of Tamils and Muslims.

1914

July

16

Arrived at Pretoria at  8 a.m.; spoke at Indian Location; left for Cape Town.

1914

July

17

Reached Vereeniging.

1914

July

18

Arrived at Cape Town;  taken in procession from Monument to docks, received address, made farewell speech;  interviewed by the Cape Argus. Released valedictory letter to South Africa Indians;  left for England on board s.s. Kinfauns Castle.

1914

July

20

Gandhi’s farewell  letter published in the Press.

1914

July

22

Indian Opinion announced  plan to issue "Golden Number" to commemorate struggle.

1914

July

24

Gazette published  regulations regarding registration of marriages under Indians’ Relief Act.

1914

July

28

Further regulations  under Immigration Act gazetted.

1914

August

2

Germany violated  Belgian neutrality.

1914

August

3

Phoenix Party for  India led by Maganlal gandhi given sendoff at Durban.

1914

August

4

World War I broke out;  Gandhi received news in English channel; reached London.

1914

August

5

In India, viceroy  issued war proclamation.

1914

August

7

In letter to  Chhaganlal Gandhi, Gandhi complained of being ill with ‘old leg pain’.

1914

August

8

Gandhi given reception  at Hotel Cecil, London, by English and Indians friends; Jinnah, Lala Lajpat Rai, Sarojini  Naidu were among those present.

1914

August

10

NIC, Anjuman Islam  protested against Government’s demand for photographs for identification.

1914

August

13

Circular signed by  Gandhi, Kasturba, Sarojini Naidu affirming resolve to tender unconditional service to  Empire, issued for signature by supporters.

1914

August

14

Gandhi offered to  raise Indian Volunteer Corps for ambulance work.

1914

August

After 14

India Volunteer  Committee set up with Gandhi as chairman.

1914

August

24

Gandhi inquired of  India Office if Kallenbach could join Corps.

1914

August

Before 26

Started attending  classes for nursing wounded soldiers.

1914

September

3

Appeared for First-Aid  examination.

1914

September

18

Met Gokhale in London.

1914

September

22

Issued general  circular appealing for volunteers.

1914

October

1

Presided over  Voluntary Aid Corps meeting, attended among others by the Aga Khan, Kasturba, Sarojini  Naidu and Ameer Ali.

1914

October

3

Indian Ambulance Corps  camped at Eastcote. Gandhi served members "….most remarkable lunch consisting of  assorted fruits of superfine quality and nuts of different kinds".

1914

October

6

Gokhale returned to  London after rest-cure at Vichy.

1914

October

13

In letter to Col.  Baker, Gandhi regretted appointment of Corporals without consulting Indian Committee; had  motion on like lines passed at meeting.

1914

October

14

Forwarded resolution  to Col. Baker.

1914

October

23

Meeting of ambulance  Corps held.

1914

October

25

Gandhi wrote to  Maganlal Gandhi; "I have had to start a Satyagraha against India Office." Ill in  bed, advised rest.

1914

October

31

Col. Baker conceded  principle of consultation with Indian Committee. Gandhi wrote "The Satyagraha is  over; we got what we wanted."

1914

November

3

Got up first time  after illness; started short walks.

1914

November

4

Appealed through Press  for volunteers for ambulance work.

1914

November

4

Phoenix party arrived  at Santiniketan from Kangri Gurukul.

1914

November

9

Gandhi’s  associate and passive resister, Gabriel Issac, passed away.

1914

November

Before

Gandhi spent, along  with Corps, weekend in camp at Eastcote.

1914

November

11

Indian Opinion reported  Gandhi’s name included among nominees to president ship of Indian National Congress.

1914

November

12

Gandhi received letter  from W.W. Pearson regarding Phoenix Party at Santiniketan.

1914

November

13

Gokhale arrived in  Bombay. Ambulance Corps reported doing nursing work at Metlay Hospital near Southampton.

1914

November

26

Gandhi took ill again;  wrote to Gokhale "I do not want to live on any terms…"

1914

December

1

Golden Number of Indian  Opinion published.

1914

December

4

Gandhi still ill, in  bed.

1914

December

18

Gave interview to  Reuter; given farewell party at Westminister Palace Hotel on eve of departure for India.

1914

December

19

Sailed for India, with  Kasturba; started learning Bengali on board ship.

1914

December

28 - 30

Indian National  Congress in session at Madras.