MAHATMA GANDHI MEDIA AND RESEARCH SERVICE

Chronology of the life and work of Mahatma Gandhi (Ghandi)

1909

1909

January

1

Gandhi  entertained at dinner by Dada Osman, NIG Joint Secretary; addressed meeting.

1909

January

Before  2

Dawad  Mahomed, Parsee Rustomjee and M.G. Anglia detained under Registration Act for refusing to  give thumb impression.

1909

January

2

Gandhi,  in Indian Opinion, exhorted countrymen, in New Year message, to adopt swadeshi.

1909

 

 

While narrating in Indian Opinion, his experiences during second jail term, asserted that gaol-going was  "the most effective means of fighting political disabilities".

1909

 

 

Pickets arrested in  Pretoria under section 3 of Law 6 of 1894, concerning unlawful assemblies.

1909

January

4

Pretoria  pickets informed that they were being tried under section 7 of new Act and were liable to  deportation.

1909

January

5

Gandhi,  in interview to The Natal Mercury, stated that Indians were fighting with the  "cleanest weapons possible".

1909

 

 

Harilal Gandhi and  others remanded at Volksrust.

1909

 

 

Three Indians charged  under section 7, at Roodepoort, for failing to produce registration certificates.

1909

January

6

Moulvi  Ahmed Mukhtiar of Hamidia Mosque refused renewal of permit on ground that he had preached  against Asiatic Registration Act; served with quit notice, left Transvaal for Cape. Dawad  Mahomed and 31 others charged for failure to produce registration certificates.

1909

January

7

Gandhi  accused by The Star, of "quoting the breaches already made and legalized in  the Asiatic law as an argument for repealing it altogether."

1909

 

 

Boksburg Indian  dealers refused trading licences except for Stand in Location.

1909

January

Before  9

Several  Indians, including some Colonial-born, who were deported to Natal from Transvaal were  dealt with under Regulations of Act 36 and nominally convicted for entry into Natal.

1909

January

9

Gandhi  attended meeting of Indian Chamber of Commerce at Durban, made suggestions for Rules and  Regulations of Chamber.

1909

 

 

Ritch protested to  Colonial Office against Natal Government Notice banning admission of Indian students about  14 to higher-grade schools.

1909

January

10

Dr.  Nanji operated on Kasturba, seriously ill for 3 months, in Durban. Gandhi attended on her.

1909

January

12

Three  Indians, charged with contravention of section 7 of Act 36 of 1908, ordered to register  within 8 days.

1909

January

16

Gandhi,  on way to Johannesburg, arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration  certificate. Deported and escorted to border, returned immediately and was re-arrested.  Released on his own recognizance, returned to Johannesburg.

1909

 

 

Supreme Court ruled  deportation of registered citizens illegal.

1909

January

20

Gandhi  wrote to the Press stating that Indians had entered third and final phase of struggle.

1909

 

 

Johannesburg town  Council urged Government to deal firmly with Asiatic problem and enforce Registration Act.

1909

January

21

In  interview to The Natal Mercury, Gandhi observed it was difficult to say  categorically if Indian merchants would be prepared to undergo sacrifice implied in  placing all their assets at creditors’ disposal.

1909

 

 

Johannesburg  correspondent of Indian Opinion reported that 30 merchants were ready to follow  Cachalia’s example.

1909

 

 

Rend Daily Mail, commenting  on meeting of Cachalia’s creditors, observed that "the so-called passive  resistance movement had degenerated into coercion", that "the Transvaal  Government will not be bullied into making concessions by such methods", and added,  "we do not think that many of the Asiatic will fall within Mr. Gandhi’s little  plan, and ruin themselves completely to further the cause of passive resistance when it  assumes such a new and startling form." Called for Government check on picketing.

1909

 

 

Telegram in The  Natal Mercury reported Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce’s resentment against  attempt of Indian merchants to force hands of Government. Extremist opinion supported move  to confiscate merchants’ goods and to stop picketing of firms.

1909

January

22

Gandhi  attended meeting of Cachalia’s European creditors and submitted accounts.

1909

 

 

Criticized Rand  Daily Mail, for calling passive resistance on act of coercion.

1909

 

 

Naidoo’s appeal  against conviction under Asiatic Registration Amendment Act dismissed by Supreme Court.

1909

 

 

The Soft Goods Section  of Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce adopted resolution supporting Government in  enforcement of Asiatic Registration Law.

1909

 

 

Bulawayo Town council  refused Indians new trading licences.

1909

January

23

The  Star welcomed Supreme Court judgment in Naidoo appeal and doubted if more than a few  "deluded faddists will consent to sacrifice their business and damage their credit at  the dictation of Messrs Gandhi and Cachalia".

1909

 

 

E.I. Aswat, other  Indian merchants followed Cachalia’s example.

1909

January

25

Gandhi,  in interview to Rand Daily Mail, stated he would not be satisfied until Asiatic  traders got their rights in South Africa. Rand Daily Mail observed that "if  the tactics of the passive resisters should spread to the Colored and Native population  of South Africa, anarchy would reign."

1909

January

26

Gandhi  addressed meeting of Tamilians, Wrote to Dr. Krause repudiating allegation regarding  Cachalia’s move.

1909

 

 

Creditors notified  Cachalia of their intention to sequestrate his estate. Several Indians, including  14-years-old residents, served orders of deportation to Dalagoa Bay.

1909

January

27

Gandhi  forwarded to Lord Cruzon statement of Indian position, hoping latter’s intervention  would result in happy termination of struggle.

1909

 

 

Cachalia and 31 others  arrested under Section 9 and produced before Magistrate.

1909

 

 

Kholwad Conference of  Indians resolved not to take out licences or renew registration certificates.

1909

January

28

Indian  merchants at Johannesburg decided to do without licences and to court imprisonment.

1909

January

29

Gandhi  informed of improvement in Kasturba’s condition. Left for Durban. 18 Asiatics,  arrested at Komatipoort as prohibited immigrants, stood trial at Barberton.

1909

January

30

Cachalia,  Naidoo and others sentenced to 3 months or £ 50 fine; Shelat to 2 months.

1909

 

 

Transvaal Government  wrote to Secretary of State for Colonies denying that Gandhi performed hard labor in  public streets, Indian prisoners were ill-treated or their religious susceptibilities  hurt.

1909

February

1

E.I.  Aswat unanimously elected Acting Chairman of BIA during Cachalia’s incarceration.

1909

February

2

Lord Curzon informed  Gandhi of his discussion with Botha and Smuts and of their "anxiety to treat British  Indians… in spirit of liberality as well as justice".

1909

February

3

Parsee Rustomjee and  others arrested for defying deportation orders.

1909

February

4

Gandhi removed  Kasturba, convalescing after operations, to Phoenix.

1909

February

5

Appeal of Randeria  dismissed by Transvaal Supreme Court. Deportation of Harilal Gandhi, Dawad Mahomed and  other leading Indians ordered.

1909

February

9

Draft Act of Union  published in Government Gazette.

1909

 

 

Dawad Mahomed and  Cachalia agreed in Court to sequestration of their estates.

1909

February

10

Harilal Gandhi and  several others sentenced at Volksrust to term ranging between 3 to 6 months.

1909

 

 

Imperial Government  withheld assent to Asiatic Act of Rhodesia.

1909

February

11

Parsee Rustomjee and  others, arrested on reentering Transvaal after deportation, sentenced to 6 months.

1909

February

Before 15

National Convention  put up Draft South Africa Act.

1909

February

16

V.A.  Chettiar sentenced to 3 months. General Botha in letter to Governor stated  Government’s stand in regard to demand for repeal of Act 2 of 1907, denied any  promise was made for its repeal, and observed that 97 per cent of Asiatic residents had  actually registered and that passive resistance was breaking down.

1909

February

17

More  passive resisters awarded sentences from 3 to 6 months; others remanded; arrests reported  from Pretoria, Heidelberg, Germiston, etc.

1909

February

18

N.A.  Cama sentenced to 3 months; several other prominent Indians deported or sentenced.

1909

February

19

Six  Indians arrested at Standerton for failure to identify themselves or produce registration  certificates.

1909

February

20

Leung  Quinn arrested for failing to produce registration certificate and refusing  identification.

1909

February

22

Gandhi  left Phoenix for Johannesburg.

1909

February

25

Arrested  at Volksrust along with Polak and Vyas.

1909

 

 

Sentenced to 3 months  or £ 50 fine for failure to produce registration certificate.

1909

 

 

Issued message to  Tamils exhorting them to keep up struggle.

1909

February

28

British  Indian meeting at Hamidia Islamic Society Vrededorp, congratulated Gandhi, Cachalia,  Parsee Rustomjee and others who had sought imprisonment; resolved to continue struggle.

1909

March

2

Gandhi’s  transfer from Volksrust to Pretoria Goal ordered. Left by evening train.

1909

March

3

Reached  Pretoria Central Gaol.

1909

 

 

Indian Opinion correspondent from Volksrust telegraphed "Mr.Gandhi has been taken to Pretoria for  departmental reasons; I believe it is in order to completely isolate him. The rumor of an  impending compromise is strongly discounted by the Executive of the BIA". Polak  inaugurated meeting of imprisoned passive resisters’ wives and relatives E.I. Aswat  and Leung Quinn sentenced to 3 months.

1909

March

4

Gandhi  given work of polishing prison floor and doors. Secretary of Tamil Benefit Society and  Chief Picket, K.K. Samy, sentenced to 3 months. Randeria released after serving 2  months’ sentence.

1909

March

5

Randeria  re-arrested.

1909

 

 

Meeting of Cape  Colored people discussed Draft Act of Union, demanded representation in Union Parliament  and political rights. E.S. Coovadia appointed Acting Chairman, BIA, in view of  imprisonment of Cachalia and Aswat.

1909

March

6

Whites  started agitation to set up Locations at Barberton, Boksburg, Krugersdorp, etc.

1909

March

7

British  Indian meeting in Hamidia Islamic Society addressed among others by Coovadia, Kallenbach  and Polak.

1909

March

8

In  statement of Gandhi’s imprisonment, Col. Seely observed "Mr. Gandhi had been  imprisoned because of his refusal to comply with the Transvaal Law,… that the  Imperial Government was unable to prevent the Transvaal Government from enforcing the law  relating to registration certificates."

1909

March

10

Gandhi  taken in handcuffs to Court to appear as witness. Passive resisters congratulated Kasturba  Gandhi on Gandhi’s third sentence of imprisonment for sake of self-respect and honor  of Asiatic communities.

1909

 

 

Chinese passive  resisters congratulated Gandhi and Leung Quinn on being sentenced, resolved to continue  struggle for justice and self-respect.

1909

 

 

Deportation of passive  resistance prisoners via Delagoa Bay to India commenced.

1909

 

 

BIA wrote to Transvaal  Government , protesting against deportation arrangement between Transvaal and Portuguese  Government.

1909

March

11

Indian  women held meeting in Johannesburg. Letter from Kasturba reported saying: "Had she  wings, she would fly to the meeting."

1909

 

 

Letter to Transvaal  Press signed by Kasturba and four other released.

1909

 

 

Doke, in letter to  Johannesburg press, referring to Gandhi’s being handcuffed, observed that "the  great majority of our Colonists feel ashamed that a man of the character and position of  Mr.Gandhi should be needlessly insulted in this way".

1909

March

12

Indian  Opinion special correspondent in telegram stated "Mr. Gandhi looks thin and  unhealthy."

1909

 

 

Meeting of Nyasaland  Indians condemned treatment of Indians in Transvaal and Imperial Government’s  weakness.

1909

 

 

Kimberley meeting of  non-whites expressed concern at inadequate provision in proposed Constitution to protest  their interests.

1909

March

13

Indian  Opinion, commenting on official statement that removal of Gandhi from Volksrust to  Pretoria Central Goal was "simply a matter of administrative convenience",  observed that "it has no other purpose than to completely isolate Mr.Gandhi, so that  no breath of encouragement should reach his people from him." BIA requested High  Commissioner to receive deputation concerning deportation policy.

1909

March

14

Natal  India Congress meeting at Durban, declares support to Transvaal passive resistance,  condemned deportation arrangements between Transvaal and Delagoa Bay authorities.

1909

 

 

BIA meeting at  Johannesburg resolved to continue passive resistance "with unabated energy" till  Government conceded demands.

1909

March

15

Draft  of South Africa Act laid before South African Parliament; question raised in Commons.

1909

 

 

High Commissioner  refused to see BIA deputation on deportation.

1909

March

16

Meeting  of Indians in Delagoa Bay, addressed by Abdulla Hajee Adam and Polak on Transvaal  situation and deportation arrangement, decided to send deputation to Portuguese Governor  General.

1909

March

17

Meeting  of Kimberley Indians protested against unjust treatment of Indians in Transvaal.

1909

 

 

Transvaal Governor  cabled Colonial Office that no Indians producing proof of registration were deported but  only those Asiatics without domicile in South Africa, who were ordered to be deported by  Magistrate.

1909

 

 

BIA, Port Elizabeth,  cabled urging Viceroy’s intervention on behalf of Transvaal Indians.

1909

March

19

Transvaal  Supreme Court ruled Indians were not disabled from securing trading licences in mining  areas.

1909

March

22

Natal  Municipal Association criticized Imperial Government for not sanctioning discriminatory  provisions in Municipal Laws Consolidation Bill.

1909

March

24

Meeting  of BIA, East London, condemned Transvaal Government’s deportation policy.

1909

March

25

Meeting  of Indian women at Hamidia Society Hall, addressed by Mrs. Thambi Naidoo, Mrs. Polak and  Miss Schlesin, formed Indian Women’s Association.

1909

 

 

Meeting  of Indian women at Hamidia Society Hall, addressed by Mrs. Thambi Naidoo, Mrs. Polak and  Miss Schlesin, formed Indian Women’s Association.

1909

 

 

Lord Crewe, replying  to Lord Ampthill in Lords, defended Transvaal deportation policy on ground that Indians  not being Mozambique Indians ex hypothesis could be deported under Portuguese Law.

1909

March

26

Moulvi  Ahmed Khan of Surti Mosque examined in Court of Mr. Jordan.

1909

 

 

Registration at  Pretoria reported at standstill.

1909

 

 

Schreiner, addressing  meeting at Cape Town, considered color bar a blot on Draft Union Constitution.

1909

 

 

Government of India,  in reply to cable of March 17 from BIA, Port Elizabeth, assured continued "endeavours  to obtain sympathetic treatment for British Indians in the Transvaal" but regretted  inability to interfere in cases of penalty for noncompliance with law.

1909

March

27

More  arrests, convictions and deportations at Johannesburg, Vereeniging and Volksrust reported.

1909

 

 

65 prisoners reported  removed from Volksrust to Heidelberg to work on quarries.

1909

March

28

BIA  meeting protested against Lord Crewe’s misleading statement in parliament regarding  Transvaal deportations via Delagoa bay.

1909

 

 

Dildar Khan elected  Acting Chairman, BIA.

1909

 

 

HIS resolved to  protest against Transvaal Government’s treatment of passive resisters.

1909

March

29

Thambi  Naidoo and others released after 3 months’ imprisonment, felicitated by BIA. Over 150  Indians reported to be still in gaol.

1909

 

 

13 Passive resisters  including Shelat, set free at Barberton, detained pending deportation arrangement with  Portuguese.

1909

 

 

Transvaal Governor  informed Secretary of State for Colonies that in deporting Indians, Portuguese authorities  acted under their general immigration regulations.

1909

 

 

BIA, writing to  British High Commissioner, countered Transvaal Government’s claim that deportation  policy did not apply to domiciled Indians, by citing deportation of a registered  Indian’s son.

1909

 

 

Transvaal Governor  communicated to BIA reply from Secretary of State of Colonies to their petition of  September 9, 1908, that Transvaal Government was unwilling to repeal Registration Act and  Imperial Government not in a position to press repeal; and that views of two sides on  yearly admission of six educated Indians differed only as regards method and machinery.

1909

March

30

Bluebook  on Transvaal Indian question, published in London, revealed that Botha had disagreed with  Lord Crewe’s suggestion for repeal of Registration Act.

1909

April

1

Settlement  of 20 shillings in £ liabilities effected at third meeting of Cachalia’s creditors.

1909

April

3

India  women at Germiston set up Association.

1909

 

 

Indian Opinion, correspondent  reported that passive resisters, domiciled in Natal and ordered to be deported, would only  be put across border at Volksrust.

1909

 

 

India meeting at  Barberton protested against deportation policy, paid tribute to Gandhi’s  "courage in facing hardships and insults, such as handcuffing, being taken from one  goal to another in a third-class compartment".

1909

April

Before  5

BIA  and HIS committee meetings congratulated Gandhi and others on "having gone to goal  for the sake of religion and the welfare of their brethren" and resolved to continue  struggle.

1909

April

6

BIA  wrote to High Commissioner deploring latter’s refusal to cable to Colonial Office  representation regarding Indians’ deportation.

1909

 

 

Four Transvaal Indians  deported, 10 awaited deportation at Barberton.

1909

April

7

Polak  addressed Johannesburg meeting at Hamidia Society Hall on condition of passive resisters  in Diepkloof and Heidelberg goals; BIA wrote to Acting Director of Prisons complaining of  prisoners’ ill-treatment.

1909

 

 

Natal Prime Minister  in Parliament denied any agreement with Colonies for continuance of immigration of  indentured Asiatic labor.

1909

April

11

India  mass meeting at Johannesburg repudiated Botha’s statement to Lord Crewe that many  Asiatics were content with prevailing state of affairs; urged Imperial Government’s  intervention to terminate struggle.

1909

April

12

Question  of Gandhi being marched in handcuffs raised in Commons; Under Secretary of State for  Colonies insisted that no special disability or indignity was imposed on Gandhi as passive  resister.

1909

 

 

29 Chinese passive  resisters, charged with refusal to give thumb-impressions and signatures, acquitted.

1909

April

14

Dr.  Aburrahman inaugurated at Cape Town seventh annual Conference of African Political  Organization.

1909

 

 

16 Indians, old  Johannesburg residents, deported to India viaDelagoa Bay.

1909

April

15

Ritch  made representations about Transvaal deportation policy to Colonial Office.

1909

April

17

Indian  Opinion correspondent reported that Gandhi "in the Pretoria Central Goal, is  slowly starving himself as a protest against the treatment of Indians, under the Goal  Regulations, as Kaffirs" and refusing personal allowance of ghee unless same was  extended to all Transvaal Indian prisoners.

1909

April

22

Lord  Crewe made lengthy statement in Lords on indentured labor and Indian immigration to Crown  Colonies.

1909

April

24

Chinese  passive resisters’ organization commended refusal of Chinese to give  finger-impressions.

1909

April

26

Polak,  writing to Rand Daily Mail, refuted its observation that agitation was confined to  a "handful of irreconcilables" or "bitter-enders"; denied a single  Indian had "accepted" Registration law.

1909

April

27

New  Regulations under Section 9 of Act 5 of 1894, published in Government Gazette, banned  admission of Native, Indian or Colored children to European schools.

1909

April

29

Cachalia  and 18 other Indians released after serving 3 months sentence.

1909

April

29

Cachalia  and 18 other Indians released after serving 3 months sentence.

1909

April

30

Supreme  Court ruled, in Mohamed Makda’s Case, that no appeal lay against Asiatic Registrar  for refusing registration.

1909

May

1

Indian  Opinion explained that 97 per cent of Transvaal Asiatics who had already registered,  according to Botha’s statement, had actually registered "under voluntary  registration through the efforts of the leaders of the passive resistance  movement…"

1909

May

4

Indian  satyagrahis in Transvaal goals started receiving ghee as part of diet.

1909

May

8

P.K.  Naidoo sentenced to 3 months for trading without license at Vereeniging.

1909

May

10

Johannesburg  Court ordered deportation of 92 Asiatics refused registration by Registrar.

1909

May

15

NIC  protested to Colonial Secretary, against Regulations under Section 9 of Act 5 of 1894,  being discriminatory against Indian students.

1909

May

19

Transvaal  Supreme Court held that Government had no power under Notice of 1908 to cancel reservation  of Location.

1909

May

24

Gandhi  released from Pretoria Central Goal at 7.30 a.m.; said at meeting in Mohammedan Mosque  Hall that he felt no pleasure at being free.

1909

 

 

In interview to Pretoria  News, deploring deportation of 16-years-old boy to India, asserted that such methods  would not break spirit of Indians

1909

 

 

Given rousing  reception on arrival at Park Station. Addressing meeting on Mosque ground, exhorted  Indians to resist unjust law. Welcoming Gandhi’s release on Empire Day, Pretoria  News observed that Transvaal Government should "find better use for a man like  Gandhi than persistent imprisonment with hard labor", that "the man is  suffering for conscience’ sake… his motives are of the highest and his methods  beyond impeachment".

1909

May

26

Gandhi  wrote to Johannesburg Press on jail experiences.

1909

May

29

Explained  in Indian Opinion meaning and implications of satyagraha; commenced series of  articles on jail experiences.

1909

 

 

Transvaal British  India Conciliation Committee set up by non-passive resisters.

1909

May

31

Indians  in Madras Presidency presented memorial to British Parliament urging repeal of Act 2 of  1907 and sanction of right of entry to six educated Indians.

1909

June

2

Gandhi  spoke at reception at West End Hall, and later at tea party to Aswat and Leung Quinn on  their release.

1909

June

3

Pretoria  town Council withdrew ban on use of Municipal wash-houses by Colored persons.

1909

June

6

Spoke  at meeting of Transvaal British Indian Conciliation Committee, which decided to present  memorial to Colonial Secretary.

1909

June

7

Addressed  Germiston Literary and Debating Society on "Ethics of Passive Resistance".

1909

June

8

Colonial  Secretary placed before House return showing Asiatic entry into Transvaal during 1909, in  response to demand of G.C. Munnik, M.L.A.

1909

 

 

Polak left on  propaganda tour of Cape Colony.

1909

June

After 8

Gandhi  demanded, in letter to The Transvaal Leader, that Munnik withdraw his charge of  illegal Asiatic entry.

1909

June

13

BIA  Committee meeting decided personnel of deputations to England and India.

1909

June

14

Colonial  Secretary turned down NIC request for withdrawal of ban on Indian education imposed by  Government Notice No. 201 of 1909.

1909

June

15

Imam  Abdul Kadir Bawazeer released. Thambi Naidoo, G.P. Vyas, N.A. Cama and U.M. Shelat  arrested in Johannesburg More Tamils arrested in Pretoria.

1909

June

16

Gandhi  defended Thambi Naidoo and others.

1909

 

 

Addressed to  Johannesburg Indian mass meeting convened to appoint deputations to England and India;  meeting authorized A.M. Cachalia, Hajee Habib, V.A. Chettiar and Gandhi to proceed to  England, and N.A. Cama, N.G. Naidoo, E.S. Coovadia and H.S.L. Polak to India.

1909

 

 

A.M. Cachalia, V.A.  Chettiar, E.S. Coovadia arrested. Cachalia and Chettiar sentenced to 3 months or fine of  £ 50.

1909

 

 

BIA Chairman  telegraphed Colonial Secretary requesting suspension of sentences of delegates.

1909

June

17

Gopal  Naidoo and other Tamils, delegates-elect to India, arrested.

1909

 

 

Habib Moslem Society,  Cape Town, adopted resolution protesting against ill-treatment of British Indian  Mahomedans in Transvaal.

1909

June

18

Colonial  Secretary, rejecting BIA representation for suspension of sentences of delegates-elect,  denied knowledge of their impending deputation abroad.

1909

 

 

Gandhi in letter to The  Star repudiated Colonial Secretary’s claim. Madras Provincial Conference at  Behrampore adopted resolution condemning unfair treatment of British Indians in South  Africa.

1909

June

19

Gandhi  in Indian Opinion justified sending of deputations abroad; suggested meetings all  over South Africa to express support for purposes of explaining movement and shortening  struggle.

1909

 

 

Deputation of  Transvaal British Indian Conciliation Committee waited on Smuts.

1909

June

Before  21

In  appeal to all Transvaal Indians, Gandhi stressed gaol-going as the only "unfailing  remedy".

1909

 

 

Justified, in letter  to Habib Motion, appointment of Muslim to Viceroy’s council; stressed need  blood-brother relationship between Hindus and Muslims.

1909

June

21

Gandhi  and Habib left Johannesburg for Cape Town en route to England.

1909

 

 

Summy Nagappen,  passive resister, sentenced to 10 days with hard labor.

1909

June

23

In  interview to Cape Times and Cape Argus, Gandhi apprehended ruin of Asiatic  under Union unless Imperial Government secured safeguards.

1909

 

 

Embarked for England.

1909

 

 

Smuts turned down  petition of Transvaal British Indian Conciliation Committed.

1909

 

 

Coovadia, Sorabjee  sentenced to 3 months.

1909

June

25

Transvaal  British Indian Conciliation Committee, in letter to Smuts, regretted his departure from  assurances given to deputation.

1909

 

 

Polak left for Natal en  route to India.

1909

June

26

Indian  Opinion, reported appointment of Kallenbach as Honorary Secretary in BIA Committee  meeting.

1909

 

 

BIA, Port Elizabeth,  represented to Government of India necessity for "repeal of measures which are an  insult to the whole of India, a source of continued strife and bitterness within the  Empire, and a menace to Indian residents elsewhere in South Africa."

1909

June

30

Nagappen  discharged from Johannesburg Goal in "dying condition".

1909

July

2

Sir  Curzon Wyllie assassinated by Madan Lal Dhingra in London. Dr. Lalkaka also killed.

1909

July

3

London  meeting of Indian students, presided over by Surendranath Banerjea, condemned  Wyllie’s murder.

1909

 

 

Indian Opinion reported  circulation, for obtaining mass signatures, of three petitions addressed by Transvaal  Indians to Queen, Dadabhai Naoroji and Bengal Chambers of Commerce, concerning repeal of  Asiatic Act and removal of color bar and racial taint from legislation.

1909

July

4

Meeting  of Indian women in Pretoria Location expressed indignation at arrest of some 70 Pretoria  Indians.

1909

July

6

Nagappen  died.

1909

July

7

Nagappen  given public funeral by India community.

1909

July

8

Official  statement regarding Nagappen’s death absolved Goal authorities of responsibility.

1909

July

Before  9

Met  members of Natal Cabinet and Colored people’s deputation on board the ship.

1909

July

9

Bengal  Provincial Congress Committed proposed Gandhi’s name as one of three nominees for  president ship of forthcoming session of Indian National Congress.

1909

July

10

Gandhi,  along with Hajee Habib, arrived at Southampton; interviewed by Reuter, Reached London at  10.30 a.m.; interviewed by South Africa Associated Press Agency.

1909

 

 

Met Ritch and Abdul  Caadir; called on Sir Muncherjee Bhownaggree. Wrote to Lord Ampthill for interview.

1909

 

 

Six Indians deported  from Transvaal.

1909

 

 

BIA demanded, in  letter to Director of Prisons, restoration of ghee in diet of Indian prisoners.

1909

 

 

Natal Indians  addressed petition to Secretary of State for Colonies regarding grievances relating to  indenture, franchise, trade etc.; demanded amendment of Draft Union Act.

1909

July

11

Habibia  Moslem Society mass meeting expressed sympathy with Transvaal and Natal deputations.  British Indian League, Cape Town adopted resolution urging Imperial Government to give  sympathetic consideration to Transvaal deputation.

1909

 

 

Mass meeting of  Indians at Hamidia Mosque, Johannesburg, adopted resolutions urging Imperial Government to  give sympathetic consideration to deputation’s submission; demanded through and open  investigation into Nagappen’s death.

1909

July

12

Gandhi  received BIA cable regarding Nagappen’s death and release of Dawad Mahomed due to  illness.

1909

 

 

William Hosken and 15  other prominent European ministers of religion and professional men petitioned  Attorney-General, Johannesburg, for public inquiry into deaths of Nagappen and Gibbon, a  white convict.

1909

July

Before  14

Gandhi  saw Ameer Ali.

1909

July

14

Met  H.E.A. Cotton, editor of India, Sir Richard Solomon and Lord Ampthill. Transvaal  Indian women’s petition to Queen forwarded.

1909

July

16

Sir  William Lee-Warner called on Gandhi.

1909

 

 

14 Indians deported to  India from Transvaal.

1909

July

18

Mass  meeting at Pretoria urged Imperial Government to give sympathetic consideration to  deputation’s submissions.

1909

July

19

Public  inquiry into circumstances of Nagappen’s death opened under Major Dixon.

1909

July

20

Gandhi  wrote to Lord Crewe seeking private interview.

1909

July

21

Met  Ameer Ali, Sir William Lee-Warner and Theodore Morison.

1909

July

22

Repudiated  in letter to South Africa its allegation that Lord Ampthill and SABIC were  associated with extremist movement in India.

1909

 

 

Repudiated  in letter to South Africa its allegation that Lord Ampthill and SABIC were  associated with extremist movement in India.

1909

July

23

Gandhi  wrote to Gokhale requesting help in Polak’s work in India.

1909

July

26

Gandhi  and Hajee Habib had private interview with Lord Morley.

1909

 

 

Referred in letter to  Lord Morley to prohibition of Indians from land-holding, riding on tramcars, as grievances  apart from Act 2 of 1907 and restriction on immigration of educated Indians.

1909

July

27

House  of Lords debated and passed second reading of Union Bill.

1909

July

28

Col.  Seely stated in Commons that definite representations had been made to General Botha  regarding Transvaal Indians and that letter was "really anxious to find a solution of  the question".

1909

July

29

Gandhi  in letter of Lord Ampthill denied any connection between Transvaal passive resistance  movement and "party of sedition" in India; suggested amendment of Immigration  Law to give Immigration Officer power to admit only six Indians to Colony. Sent Lord  Ampthill proofs of "Statement of Transvaal India case."

1909

 

 

Attended suffragette  meeting at St. James’ Hall. Met Mrs. Pankhurst. Deputation led by Schreiner on behalf  of Colored people and Natives waited on Liberal-Labour Party members in Commons, urged it  to move amendments to union Bill.

1909

July

31

Natal  delegation arrived in London, received by Gandhi, Polak reached Bombay.

1909

August

2

Pretoria  women set up Indian women’s Association.

1909

August

3

In  letter to The Englishman, Gandhi corrected misstatements about Registration Act,  indenture system, etc. stated that British Indians had been agitating for 15 years for  abolition of indentured labor.

1909

August

4

Repudiated  categorically, in course of letter to Lord Ampthill, that Transvaal passive resistance  movement was "fomented" or financed from India or had anything to do with  "party of violence" there.

1909

 

 

Major Dixon issued  report of inquiry on Nagappen’s death.

1909

 

 

William Hosken,  Chairman of European Committee, initiated correspondence with Director of Prisons,  supporting diet reform.

1909

August

6

Gandhi  sent Lord Ampthill copies of "Statement" incorporating changes and additions  suggested by him.

1909

August

9

Discussed  with Lord Ampthill Smuts’ suggestions. Forwarded to him amendment to Immigrants’  Restriction Act authorizing Governor to limit number of immigrants of any nationality.  Sent Lord Ampthill proofs of Doke’s biography.

1909

 

 

Natal Indian  delegation submitted petition to Lord Crewe.

1909

 

 

Harilal Gandhi and  others released at Heidelberg. Sorabjee Shapurji released from Diepkloof Prison.

1909

August

10

Gandhi  and Hajee Habib called on Lord Crewe. Gandhi cabled BIA, Polak regarding his amendment to  Immigration Act.

1909

 

 

Deputation on behalf  of Colored people and Natives led by Scheiner attended Labor Party meeting in Commons,  which assured support for amending Union Bill.

1909

 

 

Lord Ampthill had  talks with Smuts and Gandhi; later forwarded to Smuts amendment to Immigration Act and  urged him to agree to repeal of Act and admission of six Indians a year.

1909

August

11

Gandhi  sought Lord Crewe’s intervention to stop impending deportation of 100 British  Indians.

1909

 

 

Wrote to Lord Ampthill  that proposed amendment of Immigration Act did not constitute "a sacrifice of any  important principles."

1909

 

 

In letter to Lord  Crewe, Lord Ampthill appealed to help settlement on basis of Gandhi’s formula  conveyed to Smuts.

1909

 

 

Parsee Rustomjee  sentenced to further term of 6 months. Indian mass meeting at Johannesburg welcomed  Sorabjee Shapurjee, Harilal Gandhi and others; supported deputations; demanded Imperial  Government’s intervention and expressed dissatisfaction over Commission’s  findings about Nagappen’s death.

1909

August

12

Natal  Indian delegation informed by Lord Crewe that existing laws could not be repealed and  conditions would improve after Union came into being.

1909

August

13

Natal  Indian delegation addressed letter to Viceroy of India forwarding statement of grievances.

1909

August

16

Gandhi  forwarded to Lord Crewe Mahomed Khan’s complaint of ill-treatment in prison.

1909

 

 

In letter of Lord  Ampthill, observed that inquiry substantially proved allegations about Nagappen’s  death.

1909

August

17

Dhingra  executed.

1909

August

18

NIC  meeting at Durban supported deputation to England and criticized treatment of Transvaal  Indians.

1909

 

 

Tolstoy’s  secretary, N.N. Gooseff, arrested by Russian Government on charge of distributing  revolutionary literature.

1909

August

19

Gandhi  purchased books of Phoenix Library.

1909

August

20

In  weekly dispatch to Indian Opinion, emphasized that Natal Indians would be free only  through satyagraha.

1909

 

 

Lord Kitchener  relinquished office of Commander-in-Chief of Indian Army.

1909

August

21

Gandhi  met Schreiner.

1909

 

 

Witwatersrand Church  Council adopted resolution urging some form of representation for Natives.

1909

August

22

Gandhi  visited Whiteway countryside.

1909

August

25

Suggested  to Polak piece fund in aid of passive resistance struggle.

1909

August

29

Smuts,  in interview to Reuter, stated that "vast majority of Transvaal Indians are sick to  death of the agitation carried on by some of their extreme representatives…".

1909

August

30

Gandhi  wrote to Swami Shankeranand deprecating his criticism of Islam.

1909

 

 

 

1909

 

 

Smuts wrote to Lord  Ampthill on latter’s proposal to Lord Crewe for repeal of Act 2 of 1907 and issue of  permanent residence certificates to limited number of educated Indian immigrants.

1909

 

 

Lord Ampthill invited  Lord Crewe to make statement in Parliament on Transvaal problem; later, called on him and  discussed question of "right" of entry.

1909

August

31

Lord  Ampthill wrote to Gandhi hoping he would not feel bound to continue passive resistance and  suggested that Gandhi clarify to Lord Crewe position in regard to "right".

1909

September

1

Gandhi  informed Lord Ampthill that Smuts’ proposal only accentuated racial insult, and that  he could not recede from position as to question of "right".

1909

September

2

Cabled  Polak regarding Smuts’ proposal, urged Bombay public meeting be held independently to  Sheriff.

1909

 

 

Sought clarification  from Lord Crewe of Smuts’ interview to Reuter indicating settlement.

1909

 

 

In letter of Lord  Ampthill, welcomed crusade implied in fresh arrest of Indians and Chinese in Transvaal.

1909

 

 

Lord Morley informed  Natal delegation that their problem was concern of Colonial Office.

1909

September

6

In  communication to Colonial Office, stressed that he had "avoided all public activity,  in order not to prejudice negotiations." In letter to Ameer Ali, declared his life  devoted to demonstrating that Hindu-Muslim cooperation was indispensable condition to  Indian’s salvation.

1909

September

7

Wrote  to Khushalchand Gandhi that all Phoenix activities were religious.

1909

September

9

BIA  requested Director of Prisons, Johannesburg, to extend facilities to Muslim prisoners  during Ramzan.

1909

September

10

In  letter to Colonial Office, Gandhi repudiated Smuts’ statement to Reuter that majority  of Indians had submitted to Registration Act; asserted that strength of Indian opposition  still remained unabated.

1909

 

 

Deprecated  suffragette’s resortto violence and declared that Indians should "never forsake  the sword of satyagraha".

1909

 

 

BIA protested, in The  Star, against Superintendent Vernon’s statement in Court that Asiatic should be  hunted out of country.

1909

 

 

Natal  delegation’s letter in The Times stressed threefold disabilities of Natal  Indians and appealed to Imperial Government to stop supply of indentured labor from India  failing redress of grievances.

1909

September

11

Reduction  of grants for higher education of Indians by Natal Legislative Assembly reported by Times  of Natal.

1909

September

13

Gandhi  attended Pateti celebrations in London; proposed felicitations to prominent Parsi  passive resisters.

1909

September

14

Public  meeting in Bombay appealed to Imperial Government to prevent continued injustice to  Indians in South Africa, demanded stoppage of indentured labor for Natal.

1909

September

15

Mass  meeting at Johannesburg greeted Cachalia, Chettiar and Thambi Naidoo on release; Doke,  Howard and other Europeans spoke.

1909

 

 

80 Chinese passive  resisters arrested.

1909

September

16

Gandhi  and Hajee Habib had interview with Lord Crewe, expressed readiness to give undertaking  that, if theoretical right of entry conceded, there would be no further agitation.

1909

 

 

67 Chinese charged at  Johannesburg for failure to produce registration certificates.

1909

 

 

BIA request for  facilities to Muslim prisoners during Ramzan turned down by Director of Prisons.

1909

 

 

Public meeting at  Surat addressed by Polak.

1909

September

17

In  letter to Manilal Gandhi, Gandhi observed that "body should not be dearer than the  soul", and he "would have preferred Kasturba’s passing away without the  (beef) soup; but would not have allowed it to be given to her without her consent".

1909

September

Before 18

Natal  delegation met Ali Imam of All-India Muslim League.

1909

September

18

Gandhi  represented to Lord Morley that denial of Ramzan facilities to Muslim prisoners  would be an attack on their religion. Wrote to Lord Ampthill requesting him to enlist Sir  George Farrar’s active sympathy to avoid unfavorable reply from Smuts; in latter  case, felt public activity by deputation necessary.

1909

September

19

Polak  addressed public meeting at Ahmedabad.

1909

September

22

Meeting  of Chinese passive resisters in Johannesburg pledged continued support to passive  resistance movement, and sympathized with efforts of deputations abroad.

1909

 

 

E.S. Coovadia, Omarji  Sale released from Diepkloof prison.

1909

September

23

Gandhi  inquired of Colonial Office if any reply had been received from Smuts to cable Lord Crewe  was to have sent regarding Gandhi’s amendment.

1909

 

 

Proposed to Polak  institution of prizes for best essay on passive resistance from India.

1909

 

 

Public meeting at  Kathore addressed by Polak.

1909

 

 

Bombay public meeting,  addressed by Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, G.K. Gokhale and others, appealed to Imperial  Government to ill-treatment of Indians.

1909

September

24

Gandhi  met Rev. F.B. Meyer at lunch.

1909

September

27

Polak  and Gokhale spoke at public meeting in Poona.

1909

September

28

Gandhi  addressed letter to The Advocate of India defending Polak.

1909

September

29

Smuts  denied, in minute, deportation of any Asiatic domiciled in Orange river Colony from  Transvaal to India; asked that Gandhi might furnish evidence of any such case.

1909

 

 

Polak addressed  ladies’ meeting in Poona presided over by Mrs. Ramabai Ranade.

1909

September

30

Transvaal  Government repudiated, in minute, complaints about ill-treatment of Indian prisoners and  responsibility for Nagappen’s death.

1909

October

1

Gandhi  wrote to Tolstoy regarding passive resistance movement in Transvaal and Tolstoy’s  "letter to a Hindoo".

1909

 

 

Spoke at dinner in  honor of Ali Imam.

1909

October

4

Colonial  Office informed Gandhi that initiative rested with Colonial Government whether to  undertake fresh legislation on lines proposed by Smuts.

1909

October

5

Gandhi  wrote to Lord Ampthill of his desire to undertake some public activity for educating  influential quarters about Transvaal situation.

1909

 

 

Addressing meeting of  Gujaratis in London, advised them to cultivate love for their own language.

1909

October

6

In  letter to Polak, emphasized need for India to see Transvaal struggle as part of her own  movement for freedom and to help it.

1909

 

 

Discussed future  programme with Lord Ampthill. SABIC held reception to natal delegation.

1909

October

7

Gandhi  attended suffragette meeting.

1909

 

 

Doke wrote to Rand  Daily Mail giving details of Kaffir assault on Gandhi in prison.

1909

 

 

Tolstoy replied to  Gandhi’s letter of October 1.

1909

October

8

Gandhi,  in speech at Emerson Club, extolled way of suffering.

1909

 

 

Inquired of Colonial  Office about exact position taken by Smuts; informed it of deputation’s intention to  educate public about Transvaal situation and failure of negotiations. Ordered printing of  2,000 copies of "Statement of Transvaal Indian Case".

1909

 

 

In message to Gujarati  Punch, stressed his complete preoccupation with "the life and death  struggle" in Transvaal.

1909

 

 

67 Chinese, charged  under Asiatic ordinance, discharged.

1909

October

9

Sanderson  Committee on Indian immigration, reported to have completed inquiry, held that abolition  of Indian labor would seriously affect whites.

1909

October

11

Public  meeting in Madras, presided over by Turkish Consul, addressed by Polak.

1909

October

12

Writing  to Manilal Gandhi, Gandhi declared "learning to live a good life is in itself  education".

1909

 

 

Fund in aid of  deported Indians started.

1909

October

13

Spoke  on "East and West" at Hampstead Peace and Arbitration Society.

1909

October

14

In  letter to Lord Ampthill, asserted that cessation of passive resistance was impossible  "unless the theoretical right was granted".

1909

 

 

Wrote to Polak  expressing his views on modern civilization, later elaborated in Hind Swaraj.

1909

October

15

Colonial  Office informed Gandhi that proposals referred to as possible basis of legislation in  Transvaal were those made by Smuts and not by Gandhi.

1909

October

17

Ali  Imam, speaking at meeting of Indian Union Society, stressed need for Hindu-Muslim unity.

1909

 

 

Thambi Naidoo and  others, arrested in Johannesburg, sentenced to 3 months.

1909

October

19

Gandhi  wrote to Colonial office asking for exact position. More Indians arrested and sentenced to  3 months. Sorabji Shapurji and S.B. Medh deported.

1909

October

20

E.I.  Aswat, Acting-Chairman, BIA, sentenced to 3 months.

1909

 

 

Sorabji Shapurji and  S.B. Medh arrested at Volksrust border on return to Transvaal.

1909

October

24

Gandhi  presided over and spoke at Vijaya Dashami celebrations in London.

1909

October

25

Indian  Immigration Law Amendment Bill read for third time in Natal Legislative Assembly.

1909

 

 

Sorabji Shapurji and  S.B. Medh sentenced to 6 months as prohibited immigrants.

1909

October

26

Polak  reported successful meetings all over Madras presidence.

1909

October

29

Gandhiji  informed Lord Ampthill of decision to leave for South Africa and to challenge arrest on  Transvaal border.

1909

November

13

Transvaal  Indian Deputation (Gandhi and Hajee Habib) left England for South Africa.

1909

 

 

Attempt on life of  Lord Minto, Viceroy of India, at Ahmedabad.

1909

November


13 to 22

Gandhi  wrote Hind Swaraj in Gujarati on board s.s. Kildonan Castle.

1909

November

15

Arrangement  for Morley-Minto Reforms coming into force were published by Government of India.

1909

November

16

In  Lords, Colonial Secretary told Lord Ampthill of strenuous efforts made by Colonial Office  and South African Union delegates to find solution to problem of treatment of British  Indians in Transvaal. He promised to publish a Bluebook containing record of recent  negotiations.

1909

November

18

Gandhi  wrote in Gujarati "Preface to Tolstoy’s Letter to a Hindoo".

1909

November

19

Wrote  in English "Preface to Tolstoy’s Letter to a Hindoo".

1909

November

30

Arrived  at Cape Town with Hajee Habib. Interview to Cape Argus.

1909

 

 

Cabled Gokhale  thanking Ratan J. Tata for donation of Rs. 25,000.00 in aid of Transvaal struggle.

1909

 

 

Romesh Chunder Dutt,  Prime Minister to the Gaekwar of Baroda, passed away.

1909

December

1

Col.  Seely admitted in Commons that even more stringent legislation than Immigration Law of  Transvaal, which constituted racial barrier against British Indians’ immigration,  existed in Orange River Colony.

1909

December

2

Gandhi  arrived at Johannesburg. In interview to Reuter at Park Station, thanked Government for  allowing his and Hajee Habib’s reentry into Transvaal.

1909

December

3

Addressed  meeting of Tamil ladies in Johannesburg.

1909

 

 

In reply to The  Star pleaded that "the theory of equality may be restored in our legislation as  to immigration, which may be deliberately departed from in administration."

1909

December

4

Polak  spoke at Calcutta on "nonpolitical aspects of the South African struggle".